MAI Systems Corp. v. Top Computer, Inc., 991 F.2d 511 (9th Cir. 1993), was a circumstance heard by america Judge of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit which tackled the problem of if the loading of software packages into Random-Access Memory space (RAM) with a computer repair specialist during maintenance constituted an unauthorized software backup and for that reason a copyright violation. The courtroom held it did, although america Congress consequently enacted an amendment to 17 U.S.C. ? 117 to specifically overrule this positioning in the circumstances of computer repair.